Ogaki Castle, located in Ogaki City, Gifu Prefecture, was originally built around 1500 by Miyakawa Yasusada and named Ushiya Castle due to the Ushiya River serving as a natural moat. The castle was also known as Bi Castle and Kyoroku Castle. The Ogaki region held strategic importance as a transit point between Mino and Omi Provinces, a fact recognized by Saito Dosan, the Viper of Mino. When Oda Nobunaga captured Gifu Castle in 1567, Ogaki Castle came under Oda rule. Both Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi understood the strategic significance of the castle. In 1595, Hideyoshi ordered Ito Sukemori to expand the castle and construct the Tenshu keep.

Interestingly, Ogaki Castle featured four moats and a four-story keep, an unusual design since the number four (shi) is phonetically similar to the word for death, making it an unlucky number. To avoid the ominous connotation, the first floor was considered a base floor, and the "tower" was said to stand three stories high. Ogaki Castle was rumored to have been coated in lacquer over its whitewashed walls.

Ogaki Castle played a significant role in the Battle of Sekigahara, serving as the gathering site for Western forces under Ishida Mitsunari before being outmaneuvered by Eastern forces. Tokugawa Ieyasu had initially considered laying siege to Ogaki and even planned to flood the castle by damming the nearby Ibi and Kuise rivers. However, this approach would have been both time-consuming and costly. Instead, Ieyasu spread rumors that he would turn back through Sekigahara to capture Ishida Mitsunari's fief, Sawayama, and then attack Toyotomi Hideyori in Osaka Castle. This strategy lured Ishida Mitsunari and his forces out of Ogaki on the night of October 20, 1600. They marched 14 kilometers to Sekigahara under cover of darkness and rain, leading to the largest samurai battle in history the next morning.

Ogaki Castle was governed by three generations of the Ishikawa clan, followed by two generations of the Matsudaira (Hisamatsu) clan, two lords from the Abe clan, and then a single Matsudaira, before being handed over to the fudai daimyo Toda clan in 1635. The Toda clan controlled Ogaki for 12 generations until the Meiji Restoration. Outside the castle grounds, in front of the Tenshu, stands a statue of Toda Ujikane, the first Toda lord of Ogaki, dressed in armor and mounted on a horse.

Ogaki Castle's historical significance and survival from complete destruction during the Meiji period led to its designation as a National Treasure in 1936. However, it was destroyed by wartime aerial bombing raids nine years later. The castle was reconstructed in April 1959 using concrete and now houses a collection of items related to the castle and the Battle of Sekigahara. Parts of the outer moat are still visible, and from the air, the tree-lined canals' large square shape stands out among the urban landscape.

Interestingly, one of Ogaki Castle's gates now exists in Kakamigahara City, having been purchased and relocated when much of the castle was abandoned and demolished during the Meiji Period. Another gate was relocated to serve as the main gate for the Heirin-So Temple in Ogaki. Among Japan's castles, only four can be faithfully reconstructed, and Ogaki Castle is one of them, raising the possibility that it may someday be restored to its original wooden state.


See also

  • Ueda Castle


    Ueda Castle in Nagano Prefecture once stood prominently on a cliff overlooking the Saigawa River. Also known as Amagafuchi-Jo, Isesaki-Jo, Matsuo-Jo, and Sanada-Jo, it was built around 1583 by its first master, Sanada Masayuki. This sturdy yet small fortress cleverly utilized the surrounding natural defenses, including the river, steep rocky cliffs, the layout of the town below, and the strategically designed waterways to hinder attackers. Ueda Castle was fortified with seven defensive yagura (watchtowers) atop robust stone walls and had two large gates with watchtowers above them.

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  • Tsuyama Castle


    Tsuyama Castle, located in Tsuyama City, Okayama Prefecture, is celebrated as one of Japan's top three major hilltop (Hirayama) castles, alongside Himeji and Matsuyama Castles. Originally, Tsuyama Castle comprised 77 structures, including the main keep, various yagura (watchtowers), gates, palaces, and living quarters. For comparison, Hiroshima Castle had 76 structures, and Himeji had 61. The first castle on this site was built in 1441 but was soon abandoned. The large-scale construction that we recognize today began in 1603 under the orders of Mori Tadamasa. The castle served as the administrative base for the Tsuyama Han daimyo, the Mori clan from 1603 to 1697, and the Matsudaira clan from 1698 to 1871.

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  • Tsu Castle


    Tsu Castle, located in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, was originally built by Hosono Fujiatsu in 1558 and was known as Anotsu Castle, named after the old region. The site was strategically chosen at the confluence of the Ano and Iwata Rivers, which naturally formed a moat around the castle, while the nearby port served as a vital trade route.

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  • Sasayama Castle


    Tamba Sasayama Castle, also known as Sasayama or Kirigajo (Mist Castle), is a flatland castle (hira-jiro) situated on a gentle rise in the Tamba region of Hyogo Prefecture. It was constructed in 1608 as part of Tokugawa Ieyasu's strategy to prepare for an attack on Osaka, aiming to bring an end to the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu ordered the castle's construction using the Tenka Bushin system, engaging 20 former enemy daimyo and their forces to complete the complex within six months. This system kept the former enemies close and preoccupied, financially straining them and limiting their capacity for further conflict. The stones used in Sasayama Castle feature engravings called kokumon, indicating who made each part of the walls and preventing theft by other lords' men.

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  • Sadowara Castle


    Sadowara Castle in Miyazaki Prefecture was a mountaintop yamajiro castle, initially built by the Tajima clan during the Nanboku-Cho period (1334-1394). As was typical of castles from that era, Mt. Kakusho, the chosen mountain, was terraced to create various baileys, or kuruwa. While defensive structures were constructed at the top and around the mountain, the lord's main living quarters and administrative offices were situated at the mountain's base.

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  • Osaka Castle


    Osaka Castle is a prominent symbol of Osaka City, originally constructed in 1583 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the site of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji temple-fortress, which had been the scene of a violent uprising by warrior monks and peasants in the late 16th century. Modeled on Oda Nobunaga’s Azuchi Castle, the original Osaka Castle tenshu (tower keep) featured five visible floors, six interior floors, and two underground basements. The exterior was lacquered black and adorned with gold decorations, including large peony flowers, tigers, birds, and various crests.

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  • Okazaki Castle


    The Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, was born in Okazaki Castle in 1542 during a period of significant civil unrest. At that time, the Tokugawa, then known as the Matsudaira, controlled the rice-rich Mikawa plains of what is now eastern Aichi Prefecture. This fertile region was highly coveted by surrounding warlords. Ieyasu, a shrewd leader and brilliant tactician, managed to maintain and expand his territories. Following in the footsteps of other national unifiers, Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Ieyasu emerged victorious at the decisive Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. In 1603, he was invested as Shogun, a title he made hereditary, enabling the Tokugawa family to rule Japan for the next 250 years.

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  • Nobeoka Castle


    One of Nobeoka Castle’s most impressive features is the 22-meter-high stone wall around the central Hon-Maru citadel. Legend has it that if the castle were ever attacked and a specific keystone was moved, the wall would collapse, killing 1,000 invaders!

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