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Tokugawa Hidetada, born on May 2, 1579, was the third son of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Following the execution of Ieyasu's first son and wife on accusations of plotting against Oda Nobunaga, Hidetada became the sole remaining heir.

Raised by one of Ieyasu's concubines after his mother's sudden death in 1589, Hidetada was sent as a hostage to Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590 during the Siege of Odawara. Held captive until 1593, he married Oda Nobukatsu's daughter, O-hime, but she passed away a year later. Upon his release, Hidetada married Oeyo, daughter of Azai Nagamasa, in 1595, with whom he had four children.

In 1600, Hidetada led an army to attack the Uesugi and later laid siege to Ueda Castle before arriving late to the Battle of Sekigahara, angering Ieyasu. Despite this, Hidetada became the second Tokugawa Shogun in 1605, although Ieyasu retained significant political influence until his death in 1616.

In 1612, Hidetada arranged the marriage of his daughter, Sen-Hime, to Toyotomi Hideyoshi's son, Hideyori, leading to tension with Ieyasu. After Hideyori's demise in the Osaka Castle siege, only Sen-hime was rescued, eventually marrying into the Tokugawa-loyal Honda clan. Hidetada's other daughter, Kazuko, married Emperor Go-Mizunoo's daughter, who later became Empress Meisho.

Hidetada retired as Shogun in 1623, passing the title to his son, Iemitsu. He passed away in 1632 and was buried at the Taitoku-in mausoleum in Zojo-ji Temple in Edo.

 


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