Daimyo Matsudaira Tadayori, a distinguished vassal of the Tokugawa clan, was born in 1582, the same year Oda Nobunaga was assassinated, and met his demise in a dispute following a tea ceremony in Edo in 1609.

During the pivotal Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Tadayori was entrusted with safeguarding the Tokugawa and Matsudaira ancestral home, Okazaki Castle in Mikawa (Aichi Prefecture). Post-battle, he was granted the command of Inuyama Castle (Aichi Pref.) and Kaneyama Castle in Mino (Gifu Pref.). Subsequently, his uncle, Matsudaira Iehiro, passed away, and Tadayori inherited his uncle's estates and a stipend of 15,000 koku at Musashi-Matsuyama (northern Tokyo, Saitama Pref.) later that year.

At the age of 20, Tokugawa Ieyasu doubled Tadayori's income in 1602, and he was reassigned to the strategically important Hamamatsu Castle with a stipend of 50,000 koku. Tadayori's wife hailed from the Oda clan (Nagamasu Yuraku), a younger sibling of Oda Nobunaga, and the couple had six children.

While fulfilling his duties in Sankin Kotai, the mandatory alternate attendance at the Shogun's court, Tadayori attended a tea ceremony at the residence of Mizuno Tadatane, a cousin of Tokugawa Ieyasu and the head of the Mizuno clan in Mikawa (Aichi Pref.), on October 26, 1609. Other notable attendees included the feudal police chief Hatamoto, Kume Saheiji, and Hattori Hanhachiro.

Following the tea ceremony, the gathering transitioned to sake drinking and a game of Japanese chess known as Go. Amidst a dispute over a winning move between Mizuno and Hattori, tempers escalated, leading to drawn swords. In the attempt to quell the altercation, Matsudaira Tadayori lost his life at the age of 27. His final resting place is at Seigan-ji Temple in Fuchu, western Tokyo.

Subsequently, both Hattori and Mizuno were ordered to commit seppuku over the incident, which occurred a month later.

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